February 25, 1917 - November 22, 1993
If you want a Burgess Biography from the Great Writers series on DVD or one of the ACO plays. contact me.
"Him the gods have made neither a digger nor a plowman, nor otherwise in ought, for he failed in every art." - Burgess requested this epitaph in a Playboy interview 9/74
| ACO First Draft | ACO Novel eBook | Meaning of the ACO Title | News | Origin of Nadsat | Pictures | Quotes | Reviews for ACO the Novel | Scripts for ACO | Bibliography


From the ACO Novel 1996 UK

Anthony Burgess was born in Manchester in 1917 and studies English at the university there. He was drafted in 1940 and spent six years in the Education Corps. After demobilization, he worked first as a college lecturer in speech and drama and then as a grammar-school master. From 1954 to 1960 he was an education officer in the Colonial Service, stationed in Malaya and Borneo, and it was while he was there that he started writing The Malayan Trilogy (published in Penguin as The Long Day Wanes). In 1959 Burgess was diagnosed as having inoperable brain tumor and was given less than a year to live. He then became a full-time writer and, proving the doctors wrong, went on to write at least one book a year and hundreds of book reviews right up until his death in 1993.

A late starter in the art of fiction, Anthony Burgess had previously spent much creative energy in music, and in his lifetime he composed many full-scale works for orchestra and other media. His Third Symphony was performed in the USA in 1975 and Blooms of Dublin, his musical version of Joyce's Ulysses, was presented in 1982. He believed that with the fusion of the musical and literary forms lay a possible future for the novel. The Enderby novels - Inside Mr. Enderby, Enderby Outside, The Clockwork Testament and - are also published in Penguin Twentieth-Century Classics as The Complete Enderby. His many other works include Tremor of Intent; Honey for the Bears; Urgent Copy; Nothing Like the Sun; Man of Nazareth, the basis of his successful TV script Jesus of Nazareth; Earthly Powers, which was voted the best foreign novel of 1980 in France; The End of the World News; The Kingdom of the Wicked, winner of the Prix Europa in Geneva; The Piano Players; Any Old Iron; A Mouthful of Air; Home to QWERTYUIOP, an anthology of his reviews and journalism; and two volumes of autobiography: Little Wilson and Big God, which was awarded the J. R. Ackerley Prize for 1988, and You've Had Your Time, A Clockwork Orange was made into a film classic by Stanley Kubrick and was dramatized by the RSC in 1990. His last novel, published in the spring of 1993, was A Dead Man in Deptford, based on the murder of Christopher Marlowe.

Anthony Burgess died in November 1993, and is survived by his second wife and his son. The Times described him as 'one of the cleverest and most original writers of his generation', and among the many people who paid tribute to him were David Lodge, who considered him 'an inspiration and example to other writers', and John Updike, who believed that 'the literary world seems much more sparsely populated with Anthony Burgess gone. He had the energy and wide-ranging interests of a dozen writers...[and] seemed not only a prodigious intellect, but an affectionate spirit, whose mind, like Ariel's, circled the globe in a few seconds.'

From the ACO novel 1963 US

Anthony Burgess was born in Manchester, England, in 1917. After studying music and languages in Manchester, he joined the Army in October, 1940, and served for six years. Mr. Burgess did not take seriously to writing until his late thirties; his first ambition was to be known as a composer, and he has produced and had performed musical works of widely differing types. In 1954, he accepted a post as Education Officer in the Federation of Malaya, where he remained until the coming of independence.

From ACO 1994 US after his death

Anthony Burgess was born in Manchester in 1917 and was a graduate of the University there.  After six years in the Army he worked as an instructor for the Central Advisory Council for Forces Education, as a lecturer in Phonetics and as a grammar school master.  From 1954 till 1960 he was an education officer in the Colonial Service, stationed in Malaya and Brunei.  He has been called one of the very few literary geniuses of our time.  Certainly he borrowed from no other literary source than himself.  That source produced thirty-two novels, a volume of verse, two plays, and sixteen works of nonfiction-together with countless music compositions, including symphonies, operas, and jazz.  His most recent work was A Mouthful of Air: Language, Languages ... Especially English.  Anthony Burgess died in 1993. The Harry Ransom Center on the University of Texas campus has Burgess' entire library.

Roger Lewis Biography

Proof Cover - Front
Proof Cover - Back

Interviewer: "On what occasions do you lie?" Anthony Burgess: "When I write, when I speak, when I sleep."

He was the last great modernist. Novelist, composer, librettist, essayist, semanticist, translator, critic, Anthony Burgess's versatility and erudition found expression in more than fifty books and dozens of musical compositions, from operas, choral works and song cycles to symphonies and concertos. Here now is a kaleidoscope of a book--the culmination of twenty years of writing and research--about a man who remains best known for A Clockwork Orange, the source of Stanley Kubrick's ground breaking, mind bending and prescient film. Tracking Burgess from Manchester to Malaya to Malta to Monte Carlo, the author assesses Burgess's struggles and uncovers the web of truth and illusion about the writer's famous antic disposition. Burgess, the author argues, was just as much a literary confidence man and prankster as a consummate wordsmith. Outrageously funny, honest and touching, Anthony Burgess explores the divisions that characterize its irascible subject and his darkly comic, bleakly beautiful world of fiction.

"I have been stunned and baffled by Roger Lewis's vast biography of the stunningly baffling Anthony Burgess." --Jan Morris, author of The Meaning of Nowhere

"The book abounds with such sublime moments of resurrection, on the wings of Lewis's mordant humor." --Duncan Fallowell, author of A History of Facelifting

"Like his subject, Lewis is an intellectual showman, a connoisseur of the arcane, a collector of titillating trivia, but with this salient difference: Lewis has a large heart and a generous sense of humor, and he waves a beguiling intimacy with his readers. Fascinated with Burgess's consummate fakery and repelled by his control-freakery, Lewis nonetheless succeeds in humanizing this sacred monster." --Christopher Silvester, author of Roll Over And Die and editor of The Grove Book of Hollywood

"The book abounds with such sublime moments of resurrection, on the wings of Lewis's mordant humor. The two of them wrestle for every page, and so do the main text and extensive footnotes which open like trapdoors into unexpected worlds. Is this fission or fusion? Either way the energy release is enormous." --Duncan Fallowell, author of A History of Facelifting

"For good and bad, I learned a lot from Anthony Burgess...a bloody good read."
--Stephen Bayley, author of General Knowledge

"There are passages of such brilliance--especially when he rails against his subject, whom he has come to hate over the 20-year course researching this book--that I found it exhilarating...Lewis is a mad obsessive, more of a stalker than a biographer, but he certainly brings new life to what can otherwise seem a rather tame genre." --New Statemen Books of the Year

ACO First Draft

This version was written in 1960 in the style of the British Mod slang of the time and was completely rewritten to include the Russian slang.

ACO Novel eBook

Read Part One
Read Part Two

Read Part Three

New Intro for the re-release of the US version with 21 Chapters.

ACO Resucked (1986)
Anthony Burgess's acceptance speech for ACO for the New York Film Critics Best Picture Award at Sardi's in 1972

Meaning of the ACO Title

    These juveniles were primarily intrigues by the language of the book, which became a genuine teenage argot, and they liked the title. They did not realize that it was an old Cockney expression used to describe anything queer, not necessarily sexually so, and they hit on the secondary meaning of an organic entity, full of juice and sweetness and agreeable odor, being turned into an automaton. The youth of Malaysia, where I had lived for nearly six years, saw that orange contained "orang," meaning in Malay a human being. In Italy, where the book became Arancia all' Orologeria, it was assumed that the title referred to a grenade, an alternative to the ticking pineapple. From A Clockwork orange: A Play with Music

Some people believe he made up the term "queer as a clockwork orange" as no one from that area seems to have heard of it and Burgess liked playing jokes on people.



Anthony Burgess: More than ultraviolence
By Sophie Morris | The independent.
A new archive reveals how the novelist Anthony Burgess's polymathic vision went way beyond mere dystopian allegory.
    We've reserved three graves for you, Mr. Burgess," went an anonymous letter delivered to the Midland Hotel, where Anthony Burgess was staying on a rare visit home to Manchester. "One for your body, one for your books and one for your ego." Burgess, according to his biographer Andrew Biswell, was delighted by this witty piece of hate mail. "He thought it was characteristic of how Mancunians responded to what he had to say. Maybe that's changing now." Let's hope so, because this week an arts center devoted to Anthony Burgess opens its doors in the Engine House on Cambridge Street in Manchester's city center. On the one hand it will be a hip new cultural venue with a library, café/bar and space for literary, music and film events. On the other, it is to house the International Anthony Burgess Foundation's archive of his work, a vast and largely unexplored collection of writing, music and Burgessian paraphernalia which, until now, has been gathering dust in a house in Withington.
    The intention is for the opening of the center to encourage the study of Burgess and reinvigorate interest in the man, his work and his difficult relationship with Manchester. Although the gesture is on a much smaller scale than the grand concert hall and gallery named after Lowry, in comparison to the artist who lived close to the city and etched his Northern working-class roots into every painting, Burgess is every bit the prodigal son. "Burgess has been dead since 1993, and it's only now people are going back to the books," says Biswell. "It is quite hard to see Burgess's entire work – a lot of his books are below the waterline. One or two have been out of print for more than 40 years. It is different in other places: France, Germany, Italy. All over South America, Burgess is read in Spanish translation. In North America there is more in print than there is here."New studies of Burgess might also shed light on some of the many myths that he, if not actually created, then certainly propagated about himself. There is the boast that he was thrown out of the Whitworth Art Gallery – while not even of an age for long trousers – for indecently assaulting a modernist sculpture. And then there's the story that he was diagnosed with a fatal brain tumour in 1959 and given a year to live. "There's no medical evidence for that at all," says Biswell. "But it's a good story and one he told so many times it showed up in all his obituaries. It's the one thing everybody thinks they know about Burgess other than he wrote A Clockwork Orange."
    A Clockwork Orange is probably the reason most people have heard of Burgess at all, although he certainly didn't consider it his best work and ended up saddened by the furor over Stanley Kubrick's 1971 film of the novel. "When the film came out he reviewed it very favorably," says Biswell. "Then Burgess was accused of having created some sort of Frankenstein's monster, because people who'd committed various crimes said they had seen the film or somehow been influenced by A Clockwork Orange. He was attacked on both sides of the Atlantic. Eventually he became resentful of Stanley Kubrick for having wound up this clockwork monster and decided the film was a travesty of his own novel." The cult dystopia was based on the Moss Side street gangs he grew up around in the 1920s and 30s. Born John Burgess Wilson in 1917 into a Catholic family with Irish and Scottish heritage, his mother and sister died the following year in the influenza pandemic. The tragedy of losing his mother impacted profoundly on his life and work. Burgess was raised by an aunt and then by his stepmother. He went to school in Rusholme and studied at the University of Manchester. It wasn't until 1956 and the publication of Time for a Tiger that he began using the pen name Anthony Burgess. He fell out with the city, or rather it fell out with him, when he abandoned it for the more glamorous environs of Malaya (now Malaysia) and Brunei as a young teacher and later, as a tax exile, Malta, Italy, the US and finally Monaco, where he is buried. His attitude towards Manchester was ambivalent. Though he once said "as a piece of civic planning, or rather unplanning, I think it's terrible," he also remained proud of his Northern working-class roots, however far, geographically and socially, he left them behind.
    Alan Roughley, a professor of English and director of the International Anthony Burgess Foundation, met Burgess at a Joyce symposium. They became friends and the foundation was set up posthumously with Burgess's widow, Liana, who died in 2007. According to Roughley, Burgess was resented for turning his back on the UK while contemporaneously suffering from overexposure. Before he left, the BBC considered him perhaps their most reliable expert guest because he could assimilate knowledge and ideas very quickly, literally turning himself into an expert on any given topic overnight. "He was one of the first major talking heads on English television," says Roughley. "He'd talk about music one day, Chaucer the next and journalism the next. People were overexposed to him and he wasn't the most humble man." For all his pontificating on other subjects and people, the greater proportion of Burgess's own output remains unknown. Will Carr, events co-coordinator at the new center, describes him as much more than the author of A Clockwork Orange: "He was a polymath and provocateur, author, poet, playwright, composer, linguist, translator and critic."
    "The problem with Anthony," says Roughley, "is that he wrote so much. About 30 novels including fictional biographies, novels written in poetry, historical novels and a considerable number of science fiction novels. "He didn't consider himself a writer until the 1950s, would have preferred to be remembered as a composer and said his greatest creative moment came in 1975, when listening to one of his three symphonies being performed by a full orchestra. Biswell considers some of Burgess's music to be very good, but says it falls short of Burgess's own high opinion of his compositions. Of his other writing, Earthly Powers was nominated for the Booker in 1980 and his books on the lives of Shakespeare, Marlowe and Keats were well received. Roughley currently has four Ph.D. students working on Burgess across Liverpool and Manchester and the foundation is trying to secure funding to support others. For these and any others the archive is full of treasures: there are several unpublished stories, music manuscripts, Burgess's own library and the first drafts of A Clockwork Orange. Then there are his typewriters, a wonderful patterned armchair and an array of carved and painted masks and sculptures picked up on his travels.
    The gem might well be Burgess's personal cocktail recipe book, which is, according to Will Carr, "much-thumbed". The center opens on Wednesday evening when some of Burgess's piano music will be played. The venue's bar, Carr confirms, will be serving up "vodka and milk and ultraviolence". The International Anthony Burgess Foundation, Cambridge St, Manchester (0161 235 0776) opens tomorrow For further reading: The Real Life of Anthony Burgess by Andrew Biswell (Picador)



The Harry Ransom Center hosts "Music from the Collections" event with Alan Roughley, executive director of the International Anthony Burgess Foundation, and pianist Dianne O'Hara as they read and perform works by Anthony Burgess. 7 pm on Feb. 26. Readings include segments of "A Clockwork Orange," "This Man and Music," "Nothing Like the Sun" and more. The musical performance will feature "Preludes 1-6," "Tango," "Rhapsody" and "2 Preludes and Fugues," among others. This program will be webcast. Seating is free, but limited. The event is co-sponsored by the International Anthony Burgess Foundation.


There is a book that came out recently called Conversations with Anthony Burgess (Literary Conversations Series) by Earl G. Ingersoll and Mary C. Ingersoll. It features 12 interviews and covers ACO.


Telegraph UK
Liana Burgess, who died on 12/3/07 aged 78, was a translator, literary agent and the second wife of the novelist and composer Anthony Burgess She met Anthony Burgess, who was to become her second husband, in 1963. While working for the Bompiani Literary Almanac, she was asked to compile an annual report on new English fiction. When she read A Clockwork Orange and Inside Mr. Enderby (published under the pseudonym Joseph Kell), she believed that she had discovered two novelists of genius. She wrote enthusiastically to both authors and was surprised to discover that they were the same man. They arranged to meet for lunch in Chiswick, and immediately began a clandestine affair. "I fell in love with the work," she said later. "Anthony was never a good-looking man."
    Burgess was powerfully attracted by her dark-haired beauty, and by her passionate hatred of the Italian state and the Roman Catholic Church. He was unhappily married to his first wife, Llewela, a notoriously aggressive Welsh alcoholic, but refused to leave her for fear of offending his cousin, George Patrick Dwyer, who was the Roman Catholic Bishop of Leeds. Liana Macellari gave birth to a son by Burgess, Paolo Andrea (later known as Andrew Burgess Wilson), in 1964. They continued to meet in secret, and Llewela was told nothing of Burgess's illegitimate child. In 1967 Liana took up a teaching post at King's College, Cambridge, where she made Italian translations of Thomas Pynchon's V and The Crying of Lot 49.
    Reunited with Burgess shortly after the death of his wife in March 1968, she abandoned her academic career in Cambridge and they married six months later. Liana was 38, Burgess 53; Paolo Andrea, newly legitimized, was four years old. Determined to avoid the punitive 90 per cent income tax imposed on high earners by the Labor government, the trio embarked on a life of restless traveling in a Bedford Dormobile. While Liana drove, often dangerously, through France and across the Alps, Burgess sat in the back of the van and clattered away at his typewriter, producing novels and film-scripts for Lew Grade and Franco Zeffirelli.They settled briefly on Malta before setting out on a four-year tour of American universities. Burgess was a visiting professor at Chapel Hill, Princeton and City College in New York. Liana developed her talent for photography, and began an ambitious translation of James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.
    Driven by a belief that property was a sound investment, she bought houses in Rome, Malta, Bracciano, Callian, Siena, Lugano, Twickenham, central London and Monaco. Many of these residences were sparsely furnished, and some were left to stand empty for decades. Her activities as an agent were equally unconventional. She refused to be loyal to any publisher, convinced that they were all motivated by greed and dishonesty. Her 25-year marriage to Burgess was a remarkable literary partnership. Her translation of the Trilogia Malese - in which she found ingenious Italian equivalents for his bawdy, polyglot puns - was awarded the Premio Scanno prize.As well as acting as his European agent from 1975, she translated Belli's blasphemous Roman sonnets for the novel Abba Abba. She also appears in fictional form as the seductive Italian photographer Paola Lucrezia Belli in Burgess's autobiographical novel, Beard's Roman Women (1977).
    When she sued the executive producers of Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange for 10 per cent of the film's profits, this money allowed the family to establish a semi-permanent home on the rue Grimaldi in Monaco. Living in a tax haven accorded with her strong belief that the earnings of writers should not be taxed under any circumstances. Exiled in Monaco, Burgess often claimed that he had no friends except his wife, but he maintained that the small civilization of their marriage was sufficient.
    Liana was grief-stricken when he died from lung cancer in 1993, as she was when Paolo Andrea died suddenly in 2002; but she was sustained by her determination that Burgess's literature and music should not be forgotten. As her health began to fail in recent years, she was looked after with great kindness by two close friends in Monaco, Gerard Docherty and Caroline Langdon Banks. She leaves no surviving relatives, but her commitment to scholarship has led to the creation of the Anthony Burgess Centre at the University of Angers and the International Anthony Burgess Foundation in Manchester.

Nominees have been announced for this year's Prometheus Award, which recognizes novels that explore the value of personal freedom, human rights and other libertarian ideals. It is presented annually by the Libertarian Futurist Society. The winner will be announced at the 65th World Science Fiction Convention, Aug. 30-Sept. 3, in Yokohama, Japan. The finalists for the Prometheus Hall of Fame for Best Classic Fiction were also announced. The nominees include A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess.

Kat Dibbits 3/2/07
Few people know that Anthony Burgess, author of A Clockwork Orange, was in fact from Manchester. For a chance to learn more about this famous literary son, Portico Prize-winning biographer Andrew Biswell will talk about Burgess's letters, diaries and music, including many new discoveries, giving fans the chance to follow the footsteps of this remarkable author from Manchester to Monaco. Inside Mr. Burgess, Wednesday March 21, at The Portico Library and Gallery, 57 Mosley Street, Manchester. Talk and buffet £16.50, talk only £5.

The Real Life of Anthony Burgess by Andrew Biswell released in England 10/6/06


The Dick Cavett Show Rock Icons DVD from 1969 to 1974 features Anthony Burgess.

City archive to honor Burgess
by David Schaffer
BBC News Online, Manchester 6/28/04

    Burgess believed the people of Manchester were "very creative". His notoriety as a writer was sealed when Stanley Kubrick's controversial film A Clockwork Orange was released in the 1970s.
More than 30 years later, after the long-banned movie was finally shown on TV, the film of Anthony Burgess's novel is probably still the one thing the writer is famed for.
    Much less known is the fact Burgess - who died in November 1993 - was also a composer, journalist, linguist and literary critic, who was born in Manchester. But the city now aims to change all that by becoming the global focal point of his life and work, with the official opening of the International Anthony Burgess Foundation at the weekend.
    His widow, Liana Burgess, who has invested money and energy in the foundation over the last two years, was present at the opening on Friday. It is very important that it is in Manchester. Anthony came back time and time again - he always thought it was a writer's city. She said it was very important to her it should be set up in her late husband's home city.
    "I think that because it is in the north of England, Manchester has not had the profile it deserves for the kind of work Anthony did," she told BBC News Online. "Hopefully the opening of the foundation will go some way to redressing that."
    She said however, there were other aspects of the city she and Burgess could have quite happily done without. "The place looks very beautiful, but I do wish Manchester had more of a Mediterranean climate," she added.
    Dr. Alan Roughley, the foundation's executive director, said the opening indicates the popularity of Burgess is back on the rise. "It has come after the fact A Clockwork Orange was featured on Channel 4 and BBC Radio Four are broadcasting an adaptation of his novel Earthly Powers," he said. "But they do say that it takes about 10 years after a writer's death for their work to be reappraised and rediscovered."
    The foundation has been set up to create an archive, which will be carried online, to help those who want to research Burgess, as well as providing a resource for academic scholars to tap in to. It houses a collection of books from Burgess's own library, as well as manuscripts and scores he wrote and musical instruments he owned.
    "And it is very important that it is in Manchester," continued Dr. Roughley. "Anthony came back time and time again - he always thought it was a writer's city. He saw the Mancunians as very creative people. I think he thought that historically writers here had a truculence, which came from the element of rebellion in their character."
    The foundation will not be fully open until August, although people can visit by appointment until then.

Fans will flock to cult classic author's shrine
South Machester 6/24/04

    A shrine to Anthony Burgess, author of the cult classic A Clockwork Orange, is to open in Withington.
    The Anthony Burgess Foundation on Tatton Grove will be a treasure trove of memorabilia including original manuscripts and personal artifacts. Burgess fan, Professor Alan Roughley, says the project has the full support of his widow, Liana Macarelli Burgess, who has donated many of the exhibits.
    Prof Roughley said: "I think it is important for people to read his work and a lot of people are now starting to rediscover his talent. I know the big thing for his wife, Liana, is that his connection to Manchester be recognized as it was his home."
    Burgess was born in south Manchester in 1917. He studied at Xavarian College and the University of Manchester before enlisting in the army. Burgess wrote more than 30 novels, including Earthly Powers, the Enderby Series, and most famously, A Clockwork Orange.
    He also penned screenplays and musical pieces, including three symphonies. The Anthony Burgess Foundation will be based in a three-story Victorian house in Withington and is the only dedicated museum to the author in the UK. Liana has donated her late husband's typewriter, writing desk, books from his library and personal gifts exchanged between the couple.
    There will also be musical instruments, scores and hundreds of manuscripts on display. Dr Roughley, who teaches the works of Burgess and James Joyce at Liverpool Hope University College, said: "Until the manuscripts are archived people will only be able to visit on an appointment basis."
    "People can come and visit and sit at his writing desk while reading his manuscripts. We are unsure what the manuscripts are at the moment so it could be a hidden treasure trove." Dr. Roughley is a huge Burgess fan and was lucky enough to meet him.
    He said: "I met him in 1990 and he helped me to get my play performed in Sydney. I was a big fan before I met him and he was exactly like I expected him to be - very modest."
    Mrs. Burgess added: "We wanted to set up this foundation in Manchester because it was Anthony's home and he remembered it very fondly."

Call for papers by the University of Angers France
for an International Symposium on
The Avatars of A Clockwork Orange
to be held at the "Amphigouri" on December 7, 8 and 9, 2001
under the auspices of the
Anthony Burgess Center ABC

All aspects and various manifestations of A Clockwork Orange will be examined, including the notebooks held at the ABC and working manuscripts, the two versions of the published novel, its translations, Kubrick's film, the reception of the book and/or the film, Burgess's theatrical adaptation with music, and the post-Clockwork resonances and reflections in such Burgess works as A Clockwork Testament and the two volumes of autobiography. Proposals discussing auto-fiction, or focusing on psychoanalytical approaches to the space, characters, language and aesthetics of the book will be particularly welcome.

Proposals for papers should be sent to to the ABC Maison des Sciences Humaines, 2, rue A. Fleming, 49100 Angers care of Emmanuel Vernadakis emmanuel.vernadakis@bule.univ-angers.fr, no later than May 2001.

The Order of Service for the Memorial Celebration for the Life and Work of Anthony Burgess was held at 12 noon Thursday on June 16, 1994 at St Paul’s Church, Covent Garden, London England.

Burgess gave a Lecture on December 12, 1991, at The Literary Society of Fairleigh Dickinson University in the Weiner Library Auditorium Teaneck, NJ Campus.

Burgess gave a reading May 13, 1988  in Toronto.

Origin of Nadsat

"Anthony Burgess made up a teenage argot he calls Nadsat. It is English with a polyglot of slang terms and jargon thrown in. The main sources for these additional terms is Russian. Although there are also contributions from, Gypsy, French, Cockney/English slang and other miscellaneous sources such as Malay and Dutch (possibly via the Dutch influence on Malay) and his own imagination. The large number of Russian words in Nadsat is explained in the book as being due to propaganda and subliminal penetration techniques. This is probably because of the cold war (which was still quite "warm" when Burgess wrote ACO) which, in Burgess's ACO world, has apparently shifted into overdrive."

English to Nadsat Glossary
Nadsat to English Glossary with Word Origins


Anthony Burgess in 1962 when ACO was first published


    After ten minutes Deborah said she could stand no more and was leaving; after eleven minutes, Liana said the same thing. I held them both back: however affronted they were by the highly colored aggression, they could not be discourteous to Kubrick. We watched the film to the end, but it was not the end of the book I had published in UK in 1962: Kubrick had followed the American truncation and finished with a brilliantly realized fantasy drawn from the ultimate chapter of the one, penultimate chapter of the other...I cursed Eric Swenson of W.W. Norton.
    The film was now shown to the public and was regarded by the reactionary as the more dangerous for being so brilliant. Its brilliance nobody could deny, and some of the brilliance was a film director's response to the wordplay of the novel...As for the terrible theme - the violence of the individual preferable to the violence of the state - questions were asked in parliament and the banning of the film urged. It was left to me, while the fulfilled artist Kubrick pared his nails in his house in Borehamwood, to explain to the press what the film, and for that matter the almost forgotten book, was really about... " Burgess From "You've Had Your Time" 1991

Reviews for ACO the Novel

“One of the few books I have been able to read in years. I do not know of any other writer who has done as much with language as Mr. Burgess has done here. The fact that this is also a very funny book may pass unnoticed.” - William Burroughs

"..... a brilliant novel.., a savage satire on the distortions of the single and collective minds.”- New York Times 

“Anthony Burgess has written what looks like a nasty little shocker, but is really that rare thing in English letters-a philo­sophical novel.”-Time

“A terrifying and marvelous book.” -Ronald Dahl

"..... a nightmare world, made terrifyingly real through Burgess’ extraordinary use of language ... Thus Burgess points his stunning moral: in a clockwork society, human redemption will have to arise out of evil.” - New York Herald Tribune

Scripts for ACO

Shooting Script September 1970
Shooting Script - downloadable pdf file



Title Year Publisher
Time for a Tiger 1956 UK Heinemann 
The Enemy in the Blanket 1958 UK Heinemann
Beds in the East 1959 UK Heinemann 
The Right to an Answer 1960 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1962
The Doctor Is Sick 1960 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1966
The Worm and the Ring 1961 UK Heinemann 
Devil of a State 1961 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1962
One Hand Clapping 1961 UK Peter Davis; US Knopf 1972
A Clockwork Orange 1962 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1963
The Wanting Seed 1962 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1963
Honey for the Bears 1962 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1964
Inside Mr. Enderby 1963 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1968
Nothing Like the Sun: A Story of Shakespeare's Love-Life 1964 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1964
The Eve of Saint Venus 1964 UK Sidgwick & Jackson; US Norton 1970
Malayan Trilogy (1st 3 Books) 1964 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1965
A Vision of Battlements 1965 UK Sidgwick & Jackson; US Norton 1966
Tremor of Intent 1966 UK Heinemann; US Norton 1966
Enderby Outside 1968 UK Heinemann; US McGraw-Hill 1984
MF 1971 UK Cape; US Knopf 1971
Napoleon Symphony 1974 UK Cape; US Knopf 1974
The Clockwork Testament or, Enderby's End 1974 UK Hart-Davis MacGibbon; US Knopf 1975
Beard's Roman Women 1977 UK Hutchinson; US McGraw-Hill, 1976
Abba Abba 1977 UK Faber; US: Little, Brown, 1977
1985 1978 UK Hutchinson; US Little, Brown, 1978
Earthly Powers 1980 UK Hutchinson; US Simon & Schuster 1980
Man of Nazareth 1980 UK Magnum; US McGraw-Hill, 1980
The End of the World News 1982 UK Hutchinson; US McGraw-Hill 1983
Enderby's Dark Lady 1984 UK Hutchinson; US McGraw-Hill 1984
The Kingdom of the Wicked 1985 UK Hutchinson; US Outlet 1987
The Pianoplayers 1986 UK Hutchinson 
Any Old Iron 1989 UK Hutchinson; US Random House 1989
The Devil's Mode (Short Stories) 1989 UK Hutchinson
A Dead Man in Deptford 1993  UK Hutchinson; US Carroll & Graf 1995
Byrne: A Novel 1995 UK Hutchinson; US Carroll & Graf 1997


Title Year Publisher
Experience in Hollywood 1/70 UK Show Magazine
Precognition 4/72 US Playboy
Interview 4/77 UK After Dark 
The Royal Wedding: What it Means to Us 7/25-31/81 TV Guide
Guest Speaker 3/85 Architectural Digest


Like Father by David Black 1978
The People in the Picture by Haydn Middleton 1988


Private Pictures by Daniel Angeli and Jean-Paul Dousset - Viking 1980
Titus Groan by Mervyn Peake 1982
The Book of Tea Flammation 1992

For Children

A Long Trip to Teatime UK Dempsey & Squires 1976; US Stonehill 1978
The Land Where the Ice Cream Grows UK Benn 1979


Moses: A Narrative UK: Dempsey & Squires 1976; US: Stonehill 1976


English Literature: A Survey for Students UK Longmans Green 1958
The Novel Today UK Longmans Green 1963
Language Made Plain English University Press 1964; US: Crowell, 1965
Here Comes Everybody: An Introduction to James Joyce for the Ordinary Reader UK Faber 1965; US Norton, 1965
The Novel Now: A Student's Guide to Contemporary Fiction UK Faber 1967; US Norton, 1967
Urgent Copy: Literary Studies UK: Cape 1968; US: Norton 1969
Shakespeare UK: Cape 1970; US: Knopf 1970
Joysprick: An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce UK: Deutsch 1973; US:: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1975
New York Time-Life International 1976
Ernest Hemingway and His World UK: Thames & Hudson 1978; US: Scribners 1978
This Man and Music UK: Hutchinson 1982; US: McGraw Hill 1983
Ninety-Nine Novels: The Best in English Since 1939: A Personal Choice UK: Allison & Busby 1984
Flame into Being: The Life and Work of D. H. Lawrence UK: Heinemann 1985; US: Arbor House 1985
Homage to Qwert Yuiop UK: Hutchinson 1985; US: McGraw-Hill 1986
They Wrote in English UK: Hutchinson 1988
Mozart and the Wolf Gang UK: Hutchinson 1991; US: Ticknor & Fields 1991
A Mouthful of Air: Language and Languages, Especially English UK: Hutchinson 1992


Little Wilson and Big God: Being the First Part of the Confessions US: Weidenfled & Nicolson, 1986; UK: Heinemann 1987
You've Had Your Time: The Second Part of the Confessions UK: Heinemann, 1990; US: Weidenfeld 1991

As Translator

Michel de Saint-Pierre, The New Aristocrats UK Gollancz 1962.
Jean Pelegri, The Olive Trees of Justice UK Sidgwick & Jackson 1962
Jean Servin, The Man Who Robbed Poor Boxes UK Gollancz 1965
Edmund Rostand, Cyrano de Bergerac US Knopf 1971
Sophocles, Oedipus the King University of Minnesota Press 1972
Carmen UK Hutchinson 1986
Oberon Old and New UK Hutchinson 1985


Coaching Days of England UK: Elek 1966.: US: Graphic Society, 1966
The Grand Tour Elek, 1967; US: Crown, 1967
James Joyce, A Shorter Finnegans Wake UK: Faber, 1966
On Going to Bed UK Deutsch 1982; US Abbeville Press 1982


Cyrano US 1973 Boston
Blooms of Dublin: A Musical Play UK Hutchinson 1986
A Clockwork Orange: A Play with Music UK Hutchinson 1987
A Clockwork Orange 2004 1990 London
Concerto Grosso for Four Guitars and Orchestra 1990
March pur une revolution 1990


New York Times Book Review - Foucault's Pendulum 10/15/89 US

Works transcribed and format © 2001-09 Alex D. Thrawn for www.MalcolmMcDowell.net